Deer anesthesia for treatment and sampling

1. Faculty Project Leader and Personnel
Project Leader Role: 
Wildlife Game Pens
3. External Research Associate
External Research Associate: 
Associate Name: 
Daphne Gille, PhD
Associate Department: 
Research Scientist Wildlife Investigations Lab California Department of Fish and Wildlife -and- Postdoctoral Scholar Genomic Variation Lab University of California Davis
Associate Qualifications: 
She is a geneticist and wants blood for her own work on genomics of deer. I'm just supplying a sample.
Associate Responsibilities: 
She will do the genetics research.
4. Collaboration
Is this project part of a collaboration?: 
5. Funding
Will the described project be funded?: 
7. Lay Abstract of Proposed Project
Lay Abstract: 
Our yearling doe is showing signs of a potential, mild, ear infection, and I want a sample of whole blood for genetics work. This doe will be anesthetized with short-range dart projector. Once anesthetized, the doe will be hobbled, blind-folded, and vital signs will be monitored. I will conduct a brief physical exam that will evaluate the ear for signs of inflammation (not visible while just standing next to her). She will be placed in sternal or lateral recumbancy and ~ 60 cc of whole blood will be drawn from one of the jugular veins for genetic workup and storage of the sample. Once the sample is collected, the anesthesia will be reversed and the doe will be allowed to revive in the Game Pens Aviary where she normally resides.
8. Purpose of Project
Purpose of Project: 
Faculty Research
Course # (e.g. Zool 356): 
WLDF 423 - Apex Predators (Neils)
Will all the enrolled students in the course denoted by the CRN above participate in the use of animals covered: 
Describe the learning objectives that justify 1) the use of, and 2) duplication of procedures involving, live animals: 
Since I will be darting the doe for purposes of treatment and research, I will invite Aletris' students to observe the process. I will likely also let some students take temperature, listen to her heart and lungs, etc. However, students will be involved only under my direct supervision.
9. Animal Housing
Will Live Vertebrate animals be maintained in captivity for greater than 12 hours?: 
If yes, check the appropriate facility: 
Wildlife Pens
Who will be responsible for their daily care?: 
Game Pens staff, but note that this procedure should take only about 40 minutes. She will be housed as described in the Game Pens SOP both before and after the procedure.
Facility managers must be consulted prior to submitting protocol form. Please enter the date the manager was consulted.: 
I am the facility manager and I talk to myself on a regular basis. 9 Oct 2018 will work as a good day.
10. Animals
Target Species: 
Latin Binomial(s): 
Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
Common Name(s): 
Columbia Black-Tailed Deer
Age or Wt Range: 
1.5 yrs
not protected
Non-Target Species: 
Latin Binomial(s): 
11. Numbers Justification
Explain why a smaller number would not allow you to meet your objectives:: 
I need to treat 1 deer and CDFW wants a blood sample from a single deer. So, I only need one deer.
12. Source of Animals
Source of the animals (or tissues): 
Humboldt Wildlife Game Pens
14. Procedures Likely to Affect Animal Behavior and Welfare
List the specific procedures likely to affect the behavior, physiology or wellbeing of live animals.: 
Low velocity darting Anesthesia Blood draw and placement of an ear tag Revival from anesthesia
15. Level of expected pain or distress
The methods described are purely observational and non-evasive <ins>OR</ins> will involve only the tissues or carcasses of dead animals; behavior of live animals will not be influenced intentionally.: 
The methods will affect behavior, but no animals will be captured or handled (e.g. baiting animals, cameras in close proximity to animals, production of noises within normal limits of volume or frequency).: 
The methods involve capture or handling without anesthesia, but only for a brief period for measurement or observation. No samples will be collected.: 
The methods involve capture or handling without anesthesia, and routine samples (hair, blood, etc.) will be collected or euthanasia will be performed; this may involve use of routine pharmaceuticals to promote health (e.g. antibiotics, vitamins, fluids). This work may also involve temporary marking, placement of permanent tags, or fitting with telemetry transmitters or GPS receivers.: 
The methods require use of anesthesia to mitigate distress or facilitate handling, and routine samples (hair, blood, etc.) will be collected or euthanasia will be performed, A above, this work may involve temporary marking, placement of permanent tags, or fitting with telemetry transmitters or GPS receivers.: 
The methods require use of anesthesia to mitigate pain or distress, and procedures will be invasive enough to require pain killing drugs (analgesics) upon revival. Sampling or marking may be performed as above.: 
The methods will cause pain or considerable distress, but analgesics will not be used to mitigate the pain (e.g. surgeries from which animals are revived without provision of analgesics).: 
The methods will be invasive and cause prolonged physiological or psychological stress without antiquate mitigation of pain or distress.This may allow animals to progress to death without provisions of euthanasia or analgesics (e.g. LD50 experiments or long term food or water deprivation).: 
16. Detailed Description of the Procedures
Complete and detailed description: 
This doe will be chemically immobilized to evaluate an ear that she has been holding at an odd angle and to obtain a blood sample for collaborators. I will also invite participants from a class to watch. The doe will be anesthetized using a DanInject dart projector, a 3 cc dart and 1.5 cm, 2 mm barbed needle. The initial dart will contain a dosage of Telazol® (2-3 mg/kg) and xylazine (2-3 mg/kg). The actual dosages delivered will depend upon a visual estimate of doe’s body weight estimated to be approximately 50 Kg. She will be approached quietly and I'll assess her level of anesthesia. If she is unconscious, hobbles and an eye guard will be used to ease the process of data collection, reduce stress on the animal, and keep everything safe for handlers. A brief physical examination will be conducted and vital signs will be monitored before, during and after sampling. I will show students how to age deer using visual assessment of tooth wear and replacement. The doe is currently unmarked and will receive a numbered, plastic, ear-identification tag in one ear (we use small, comercially available sheep ear tags). Precautionary injections of Liquimycin (antibiotic) and Dectomax (antiparasitic) will be used to minimize risks of post-immobilization pneumonia and to control internal parasites. A 60-cc syringe with an 1" X 18 guage needle will be used to draw blood from the jugular vein. I will also show students other veins that one could draw from, but we won't subject her to multiple blood draws. Tolazoline (4.4 mg/kg) will be administered to reverse the effects of the xylazine after a minimum of 40 minutes following injection, and the will be released in the Game Pens.
17. Consideration of Alternate Procedures
1. Alt web was searched (<a href='' target='_blank'></a>): 
2. keywords used:: 
The potential need for medical treatment and the need for whole blood require immobilization from non-tame deer.
3. other resources/methodes used to determine alternative procedures:: 
I could have chosen other drugs or other procedures, but those I'm using are minimally necessary to achieve the goals.
18. Alternate Procedures Considered and Rejected
Explanation of alternative procedures rejected: 
Other drugs - I might consider other drugs. However, I've used this combination in the field with wild deer as well as in the Game Pens, and this is a routine procedure. I might consider keeping students away from the deer to reduce stress. However, this is a university and this is a great "teaching moment" so I'm opting to involve students.
19. Human Health Risks
Human health risks: 
Deer can be dangerous if they are allowed to kick handlers. Although the drugs I'm using are pretty safe, there is also a small risk of inappropriate use. Lastly, since I'll be using a dart projector on campus, there could be a risk of someone being shot.
Describe steps taken to mitigate risks: 
The deer will be hobbled to minimize risks from the feet. I'll also be the only one handling the drugs, and none of the drugs I'm using are very dangerous for handlers. I will be the only one using the dart projector, and the pressure used to expel the dart will be low. I intend to "lob" the dart into the deer, so a rickochette or a down-range accident will be essentially zero.
Describe the fate of animals upon completion of the protocol: 
The anesthesia will be reversed at the end of the procedure. She "should" get up and walk away. Sometimes, our nearly tame deer choose to stay in a lying position. If this occurs, we'll prop her up in a sternal position using hay bails and watch her until she does decide to get up.
21. Certification
I have read and agree to abide by the "<ins>Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training at HSU,</ins>" and that I will make copies of these principles and other pertinent guidelines available to those persons who work under my supervision, and that deviations from this protocol, including any unanticipated injuries or death of animals, will be reported immediately to the IACUC. <a href='' target='_blank''></a>: 
My level of supervision will be such that the procedures outlined in this protocol will be carried out in a humane and a scientifically acceptable manner as described herein.: 
I take responsibility for the conduct of anyone working under this approved protocol, and I will supervise the research to ensure that no work is conducted that is not covered herein or in a separate approved protocol.: 
I will ensure that no work described in this protocol will begin until the protocol has been fully approved by the IACUC, and that I will adhere to all deadlines and procedure outlined in the HSU ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE in accordance with the PHS Policy for Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.: 
I am aware that my research might require permits from federal and/or state agencies that regulate the harassment, capture, transport, captive maintenance, handling and manipulation of live vertebrate animals.: 
My study does not unnecessarily duplicate previous studies using live vertebrate animals, as determined through literature database searches.: 
I have considered the use of less invasive procedures, use of fewer numbers of animals and have determined that the methods proposed in this protocol are justified for the research and/or instructional objectives described herein.: 
Animal Welfare Act: 
State of California Fish and Game Commission (Title 14) - Scientific Collecting Permit(s): 
Endangered Species Act: 
Fishery Conservation and Management Act: 
Lacey Act: 
Marine Mammal Protection Act: 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora: 
Other: please list: 
Because this is really being done because I want to evaluate the ear, no protocol would be required and no acts would apply. The Animal Welfare Act was checked because housing in the Game Pens and any procedure for research are overseen by the regulations of the AWA.
Reviewer Data and Comments
Reviewers Signature: 
John Reiss
Signature Date: 
Monday, October 29, 2018
Micaela Szykman Gunther
Signature Date: 
Monday, November 26, 2018
Notify Facility Supervisor: 
Protocol start date on date of approval: